Australia’s computing history: CSIRAC, our first computer

  Last updated November 6, 2018 at 8:32 am

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Australia’s first computer, CSIRAC, is a symbol of Australia’s contributions to computing technology and innovation.


CSIRAC computer exhibit on display. Credit: Museums Victoria


It’s hard to believe that only less than 80 years ago, computers were the size of a room. And now, we essentially carry about devices with exponentially more power than the first computers, in the palm of our hands or in our pockets.


Technology has come a long way in a very short amount of time. There are few examples of what once was but Australia’s first computer, CSIRAC (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Automatic Computer) is a fascinating example.


CSIRAC is the world’s longest surviving first-generation computer, and fourth computer ever built in the world.


Hello world: CSIRAC


When it was built in 1949, CSIRAC was at the cutting-edge of computing. At half the size of a shipping container, it was Australia’s first stored-memory computer.


The project to build the CSIR Mark 1 computer (later renamed CSIRAC) started in the late 1940s at CSIR Radiophysics in Sydney. The concept was the brainchild of Trevor Pearcey, and the electronics from the work of Maston Beard.


Apart from being incredibly large, in comparison to today’s modern computers, the 2,500 kg computer was also much slower and weaker in computing power. CSIRAC’s processing speed was 500 – 1000 hertz, compared to an average 2018 laptop with 2.4 billion hertz. The memory capacity of CSIRAC was a barely comprehensible 2000 bytes, compared to about 16.5 billion bytes.


But despite that seemingly lack of power, in 1951 during a public demonstration, CSIRAC was the first computer in the world to play electronic music.


In 1955, and still the only computer in Australia, it was trucked from Sydney to the University of Melbourne where it was set up in the newly established Computation Laboratory and formally re-launched (and re-named CSIRAC) in 1956.


CSIRAC was hugely popular, with people often waiting weeks to gain access. Over eight years, it was sought after for science and industry.


It operated for approximately 30,000 hours spread out over 700 projects. Apart from electronic music, it was also used to make weather forecasts, calculate mortgages, and even play some of the first computer games.


In 1964, CSIRAC was dismantled and put into storage at the Applied Science Institute, a forerunner of Museums Victoria. It resurfaced briefly in 1980, but returned to storage yet again. The computer has been on public display since 2000 at Museums Victoria.


“CSIRAC is one of the most significant objects in Museum Victoria’s collection of over 17 million items and has an important role to play in highlighting both the history and current state of computer technology, in Australia and internationally,” said Acting General Manager of Scienceworks, where CSIRAC will be permanently displayed in it’s new place in the Think Ahead exhibition.





Inspiring Australian electronics enthusiasts


It’s hoped that the new home at Scienceworks will inspire future generations and highlight the role CSIRAC has played in Australia’s information and communications technology (ICT).


“A team of computing pioneers and volunteers has worked for decades to ensure that the history of CSIRAC is fully documented,” said Dr Peter Thorne, Pearcey Foundation member and former Head of the Department of Computer Science at the University of Melbourne.


Since its inception, it has been a source of inspiration. During the early 60s, Dr Peter Thorne was a weekend service engineer for CSIRAC whilst he was undertaking his physics degree.  


But that was not his first encounter with CSIRAC. During a high school visit to the university in 1957, he saw CSIRAC, and as an electronics enthusiast and a radio hobbyist, he was immediately interested.


Whilst studying his undergraduate degree, he was able to use CSIRAC to do some calculations for his physics practical experiments.


Getting the weekend job took a bit of patience. In the end he was in the right place at the right time – he was an electronics enthusiast who was studying physics in the same building.


“My fiancé was a technical assistant in the Computation Laboratory, so I hung around until the Officer in Charge Dr Frank Hirst offered me the job,” says Peter.


His junior role was mostly to ensure CSIRAC was ready for the weekend users. His contribution was to start up and test it, advising people who had booked to use it, whether it was working or not.


The team from CSIRO Division of Building Research with CSIRAC computer: (l-r) Roy Muncey, Bill Davern, Terry Holden. 1958. Credit: Museums Victoria


By the time he was working on the monstrous-sized computer, CSIRAC was already 10 years old and no longer the most advanced computer in the world. It’s hard to imagine working on a 10-year-old computer these days, but in the early days, advances weren’t so quick.


“Nevertheless, the Computation Laboratory was an exciting place to be.”


So exciting, that after he graduated with a BSc in 1962 and a PhD in Computation in 1968, he stayed on in the department. In the early 1990s he became Head of the Department – now called the Department of Computer Science.


When talking about what he wished people knew more about Australia’s contributions to computing, Peter says:


“Australia was there at the very beginning of the digital age. After the CSIR Mark 1/CSIRAC, further innovative computers were designed here.


“From that early start, we have always been at the forefront of software development. In the rush of evolution of the field, our local contributions and capabilities are frequently overlooked.


“Bodies such as the Pearcey Foundation (named after the initiator of the CSIR Mark 1/CSIRAC project) and the Australian Computer Society, are working with museums, universities and industry bodies to increase public awareness of our past achievements and to emphasise the importance to the future of Australia of maintaining.”


CSIRAC is on display now at Scienceworks, in the Think Ahead exhibition.


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About the Author

Kelly Wong
Contributing editor for News + Events and the online producer at Australia's Science Channel. I have a background in immunology, food blogging, volunteering, and social media. I'm passionate about creating communities on social media and getting them excited about science. I enjoy good food and I am on an eternal mission to find the best ice cream. Find me on Twitter @kellyyyllek

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Science and technology is as much a part of our cultural fabric as art, music, theatre and literature. They play a significant role in our daily lives, yet, in a world dependent on science, we often take them for granted. Australia’s Science Channel believes every citizen has a right, and a responsibility, to be informed, and our mission is to create programs to bring that about.


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