Sugar ants love pee, and it might reduce greenhouse gas emissions

  Last updated February 11, 2020 at 11:31 pm


Pee-loving ants that chomp down on urea could help prevent nitrous oxide release into the atmosphere.

Camponotus terebrans sugar ants

Camponotus terebrans – also known as sugar ants. Credit: Tim Keppens/Flickr

Why This Matters: Controlling human effects on the climate is going to require multiple approaches, but is this really one?

An unlikely penchant for pee is putting a common sugar ant on the map, and their taste for urine could play a role in reducing greenhouse gases.

The Kangaroo Island-based research found that sugar ants prefer urine over sugar – the food source after which they’re named. So much so, it’s even been described as a sports drink for the ants.

As night falls, the ants emerge to forage on urine dried in sand. For weeks they return to the same spot, scouring over the stain and tunnelling centimetres deep to extract nitrogen molecules.

Teach This: Education Resource – Sugar ants love pee, and it might reduce greenhouse gas emissions

Left otherwise undisturbed, nitrogen can end up forming the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide.

The research, led by Topa Petit from the University of South Australia, compared the behaviour of sugar ants (Camponotus terebrans) as they were exposed to different concentrations of human or kangaroo urine, sugar water, or urea in water. Unexpectedly, the sugar ants were most attracted to higher concentrations of urea, mining them for long periods within the dry sand.

The results are published in the journal Austral Ecology.

sugar ants mining urine from sand preventing nitrous oxide formation

Pee-miner can think of nothing finer

While other ants are known to be attracted to urine, this is the first time that ants have been observed mining dry urine from sand, and for a long period of time.

Assoc Prof Petit says the curious discovery could play a role in nitrogen cycling.

“When I first noticed the ants swarming to scavenge urine, it was purely by accident. But under research conditions we found that the ants determinedly mined urea patches night after night with greater numbers of ants drawn to higher urea concentrations,” Petit says.

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Camponotus terebrans are undoubtedly looking for urea in urine because, similar to certain other ant species, a bacterium in their digestive tract allows them to process urea to get nitrogen for protein.

“This remarkable ability to extract urea from dry sand not only shows how sugar ants can survive in arid conditions, but also, how they might reduce the release of ammonia from urine, which leads to the production of nitrous oxide, a highly active greenhouse gas.”

Pee-preference pares nasty nitrous oxide

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas 300 times more potent than carbon dioxide. And while less abundant than carbon dioxide emissions, its presence in the atmosphere has increased substantially over the past decade, accelerated mostly by the widespread use of fertilisers.

Petit says that while there is still a lot to learn about the foraging behaviours of sugar ants, the study shows a symbiotic relationship between ants and vertebrates such as kangaroos in dry environments, and evidence of the nitrogen cycle at work.

Also: If we want to control greenhouse gases then we need to think ‘blue carbon’

“The ability of sugar ants to thrive in dry, sandy environments and use sources of nitrogen that may not be available to other species is impressive. It may give them a competitive advantage by allowing them to feed more offspring and therefore increase their numbers,” Assoc Prof Petit says.

“Researchers working on ants as bio-indicators on grazed and ungrazed lands should take ants’ ability to process urea into account, because large amounts of urine will probably affect the assortment of ant species in the area. It would also be interesting to investigate how much ants may modify the urine ammonia volatilises from paddocks.

“This is not the last we will hear about these sugar ants – they could open up a whole new field of research.”

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