Pacific nations can survive climate change – if locals take the lead

  Last updated July 3, 2020 at 1:40 pm

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“By working closely together, we can turn the tides in this battle – the most urgent crisis facing not only the Pacific, but the world.”


Pacific nations_kiribati_pacific islanders

A young boy stands on a narrow strip of land that luckily didn’t flood and prevented his home from being drowned in the sea with the village Eita, Kiribati. People in Pacific nations are forced to face the consequences of climate change. Credit: Jonas Gratzer/LightRocket via Getty Images




Why This Matters: The fate of Pacific nations isn’t sealed.




They contribute only 0.03% of global carbon emissions, but small island developing states, particularly in the Pacific, are at extreme risk to the threats of climate change.


Our study, published in the journal Nature Climate Change, provides the first mega-assessment on the progress of community-based adaptation in four Pacific Island countries: the Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati and Vanuatu.


Pacific Island nation communities have always been resilient, surviving on islands in the middle of oceans for more than 3,000 years. We can learn a lot from their adaptation methods, but climate change is an unprecedented challenge.


Effective adaptation is critical for ensuring Pacific Islanders continue living fulfilling lives in their homelands. For Australia’s part, we must ensure we’re supporting their diverse abilities and aspirations.


Short-sighted adaptation responses


Climate change brings wild, fierce and potentially more frequent hazards. In recent months, Cyclone Harold tore a strip through multiple Pacific nations, killing dozens of people, levelling homes and cutting communication lines. It may take Vanuatu a year to recover.


Pacific nations_tropical cyclone_cyclone harold

Damage caused by Tropical Cyclone Harold on Santo Island, Vanuatu. AAP Image/Supplied by Luke Ebbs/Save the Children


Expert commentary from 2019 highlighted that many adaptation responses in the Pacific have been short-sighted and, at times, even inadequate. The remains of failed seawalls, for example, litter the shorelines of many island countries, yet remain a popular adaptive solution. We cannot afford another few decades of this.


International climate aid commitments from rich western countries barely scratch the surface of what’s needed, yet it’s likely funding will dry up for regions like the Pacific as governments scramble together money for their own countries’ escalating adaptation costs.


This includes Australia, that has long been, and continues to be, the leading donor to the region. Our government contributed about 40% of total aid between 2011 and 2017 and yet refuses to take meaningful action on climate change.


Understanding what successful adaptation should look like in developing island states is urgent to ensure existing funding creates the best outcomes.


Success stories


Our findings are based on community perspectives. We documented what factors lead to success and failure and what “best practice” might really look like.


We asked locals about the appropriateness, effectiveness, equity, impact and sustainability of the adaptation initiatives, and used this feedback to determine their success.




Also: Climate warnings from the distant past




The results were mixed. While our success stories illustrate what “best practice” involves, issues still emerged.


Our top two success stories centred on community efforts to protect local marine ecosystems in the Federated States of Micronesia and Vanuatu. Nearby communities rely on these ecosystems for food, income and for supporting cultural practice.


One initiative focused on establishing a marine park with protected areas while the other involved training in crown-of-thorns starfish control. As one person told us:


“We think it’s great…we see the results and know it’s our responsibility.”


Initiatives that focus on both the community and the ecosystem support self-sufficiency, so the community can maintain the initiatives even after external bodies leave and funding ceases.


Constructing sea walls to protect low-lying Pacific nations from sea level rise is futile. Credit: AAP Image/Elise Scott


In these two instances, the “community” was expanded to the whole island and to anyone who utilised local ecosystems, such as fishers and tourism operators.


Through this, benefits were accessible to all: “all men, all women, all pikinini [children],” we were told.


Standing the test of time


In Vanuatu, the locals deemed two initiatives on raising climate change awareness as successful, with new scientific knowledge complementing traditional knowledge.


And in the Federated States of Micronesia, locals rated two initiatives on providing tanks for water security highly. This initiative addressed the communities’ primary concerns around clean water, but also had impact beyond merely climate-related vulnerabilities.




Also: Sea level rise is accelerating




This was a relatively simple solution that also improved financial security and minimised pollution because people no longer needed to travel to other islands to buy bottled water.


But even among success stories, standing the test of time was a challenge.


For example, while these water security initiatives boosted short-term coping capacities, they weren’t flexible for coping with likely future changes in drought severity and duration.


Adaptation needs better future planning, especially by those who understand local processes best: the community.


Listening to locals


Aniwa, Vanuatu. A communal building in the village has a noticeboard, put up as part of one of the climate-awareness raising initiatives. Credit; Rachel Clissold, Author provided


For an adaptation initiative to be successful, our research found it must include:



  1. local approval and ownership

  2. shared access and benefit for community members

  3. integration of local context and livelihoods

  4. big picture thinking and forward planning.


To achieve these, practitioners and researchers need to rethink community-based adaptation as more than being simply “based” in communities where ideas are imposed on them, but rather as something they wholly lead.


Communities must acknowledge and build on their strengths and traditional values, and drive their own adaptation agendas – even if this means questioning well-intentioned foreign agencies.


Being good neighbours


Pacific Islands are not passive, helpless victims, but they’ll still need help to deal with climate change.


Pacific Island leaders need more than kind words from Australian leaders.


Last year, Fijian prime minister, Frank Bainimarama, took to Facebook to remind Australia:


“By working closely together, we can turn the tides in this battle – the most urgent crisis facing not only the Pacific, but the world.”


“Together we can ensure that we are earthly stewards of Fiji, Australia, and the ocean that unites us.”


“Together, we can pass down a planet that our children are proud to inherit.”


This article was co-authored with Rachel Clissold from the University of Queensland, Annah Piggott-McKellar from the University of Melbourne, Patrick D. Nunn and Roselyn Kumar from the University of the Sunshine Coast and Ross Westoby from Griffith University


This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.


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About the Author

Karen E McNamara
Karen E McNamara is a human geographer that is interested in how people are impacted by environmental stressors and how they can respond in ways that are effective, equitable and sustainable. She is an ARC Future Fellow and Associate Professor in the School of Earth and Environmental Sciences at The University of Queensland (UQ).

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